Meridyen Eğitim Kurumları

Ali Büyükasar


After the first period of the 20th century and right before the First World War, the Arabian nationalism had reached the highest level between all the Arabian states.

The weak situation of the Ottoman Empire and increasing influence of the European forces in the Middle East had created a possible area for the Arabian states to found their independent countries. The Islam was not a connector fact for the Ottoman and the other Muslim countries all around the Middle East anymore. And the presence of the First World was had opened a new age for the region.

Egypt was one of those countries in Arabian Muslim states. Although it was a member of the Islam union under the control of Ottoman Empire, Egypt had decided to draw its own way after the First World War. It is sure to be that Egypt had no chance to rebuild its country and its lands; no doubt, they had needed a powerful support. The Britain was one of the dominant countries on the region and they had assumed a role as the new guide of the undeveloped countries.

As Egypt, Iraq was one of the Ottoman region countries. However, the British dominance had gained their support. Iraq’s most important trump was its petroleum reserves. And it was a sufficient reason for the British authorities and forces to get a serious influence on the country. Thus, the Britain had aimed to get a new front line before a new war. Iraq was an undeveloped country and a new founded country. But, the British authorities had completed all the things for their benefits.

The freedom of Egypt and Syria and the downfall of the Ottoman Empire were the sufficient reasons for the Britain to control these places. The importance of those places would be understood in the future right before the Second World War. These countries had become good allies; they would be the greatest frontlines for the protection of European countries.

The same things are valid for the situations of Syria and Lebanon. These two countries were the best allies of the France. However, France could not been a good protector during the Second World War. And after the Second World War, the French power could stay there for just expanding their cultural area.

Although there was a strong British efficiency, after British power, the French power was very effective. Particularly, after the downfall of the Ottoman Empire, France had reached the potential of the region and France had taken the leadership of the Syria administration. The social French effect was very attractive for the Syria society. However, Arabian nationalism had shoved itself and Syria had gained its independence. It was not enough for the future of the country. Syria did not have enough things to protect itself. So, at last French had used the country as a protector to stop the Southern attacks.

Lebanon had the same destiny with Syria. There was a French domination, too. And it was not a clear independence for the country. However, the militarist aims and the possible world war had made Lebanon a guardian against the Eastern clashes. Even we say there was an independent kingdom, after Ottoman Empire, there was no independent authority. Os, the Arabian nationalism was just a way to reach the independence for the Arabian countries.

The fall of Ottoman Empire had created a new map for the Middle East and the other side, Arabian Peninsula. The new states were founded, maybe, but, the following period after the fall of Ottoman Empire was a serious dilemma for the Arabian Muslim countries to choose their destiny. After all, everybody had preferred to be under the control of the European forces and authorities; because, according to the Muslim countries’ thesis, they had serious armed forces and they had serious allies for their future before the following possible world war. That is why they had accepted to be a new frontline for the war. The authority was only for the major European states.